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    How one building came to define Seattle

    Throw in family celebrations, profit-making, plus some voyeurism (like the on-air reporting of the license plates of people parked at a hotel for some midday recreation) and you have the Space Needle.
    The Space Needle was built for the 1962 World's Fair, but it remains a symbol of the modern city.

    The Space Needle was built for the 1962 World's Fair, but it remains a symbol of the modern city. Chethan Shankar

    The original design for the Space Needle, drawn on a napkin by Eddie Carlson.

    The original design for the Space Needle, drawn on a napkin by Eddie Carlson. The Space Needle

    A satiric Space Needle postcard

    A satiric Space Needle postcard Personal collection of Knute Berger

    Knute Berger

    Knute Berger Kari Berger

    Space needle n.  (a) each of a large number of short copper fibres placed experimentally in earth orbit to reflect communication signals (now rare);  (b) a very tall, slender tower; spec. that opened in Seattle, United States, in 1962.

    — Oxford English Dictionary

    As 1962 dawned, the Cold War was simmering and the United States was lagging in the space race with the Soviet Union. It was an anxious time as thermonuclear war between the two superpowers threatened, citizens dug fallout shelters, air raid sirens screamed periodically, and schoolchildren drilled for the apocalypse,

    But the residents of Seattle were not discouraged by the possibility of nuclear annihilation.  In April 1962, an ambitious group of civic luminaries kicked off a world’s fair, the Century 21 Exposition, with the theme of science and the future.

    The iconic Seattle landmark, the Space Needle, opened a few days before the fair in March 1962. The graceful, space-age tower quickly came to symbolize not only Seattle but also the hope for the future through innovation and technology.  As New York Times writer Timothy Egan recently observed in his Opinionator column, it “was a product of whimsy“ created by optimists who dreamed beyond their jittery present.

    The unusual 605-foot tall Space Needle was the main draw of the fair for thousands. Seattle historian and author Knute Berger has written a magisterial work in  celebration of the 50th Anniversary of this iconic Northwest structure in Space Needle: The Spirit of Seattle (Documentary Media).  The lavishly illustrated and meticulously researched book chronicles the unlikely creation and rapid construction of the Needle, describes the people who moved the project forward, and details its role during the fair as well as the amusing and at times poignant story of the ensuing 49 years. Knute Berger writes regularly for Crosscut.com and Seattle Magazine, where he is Editor-at-Large. He also is a news commentator on Seattle's public radio station, KUOW-FM. He has won numerous writing awards including the 2008 Washington State Historic Preservation Officer's Annual Media Award for his coverage of historic preservation issues.

    Berger will be speaking about the Space Needle and the Century 21 Exposition with fellow Northwest writers Jim Lynch, Paula Becker, and Alan J. Stein at the Elliott Bay Book Company at 2 p.m., Saturday (July 14). (Belgian waffles, a specialty introduced to Seattle during the fair, will be served free.) Berger recently talked about the Space Needle’s history and reflected on its significance in a telephone interview.

    Robin Lindley:  You’ve written a magisterial biography of Seattle’s Space Needle — and now you’re the “official historian” of this iconic structure.

    Knute Berger: I guess “official historian” is correct.  They [the Space Needle Corporation] approached me in 2010 and asked if I’d be interested in writing the history of the Space Needle for the 50th anniversary.  It wasn’t an automatic yes, but I was intrigued.  I love the Space Needle, like most people.  As I looked into it, I realized it was a really interesting story, and I feel privileged that they asked me to tell it. 

    Mary Bacarella was the project manager [for the Space Needle Corporation] and she contacted me about the book.  I had written a piece for Crosscut when I got back from the world’s fair in Shanghai in 2010 about the Space Needle called “Tower of Power.”  One of the things that impressed me was an exhibit put on by the Museum of Shanghai on what world’s fairs are.  Images of the Space Needle kept showing up in the exhibit, and they had a display of models of all the legacy architecture from world’s fairs, like the Eiffel Tower.  The Space Needle was central, and I realized that outside Seattle it represents not only Seattle but the kind of aspirations and architecture that embody what world’s fairs are all about.  I was struck that the Space Needle meant one thing in Seattle, but had this other meaning for people across the world.

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    Posted Mon, Jul 9, 1:52 p.m. Inappropriate

    Very interesting. Thank you. It happens that I worked for John Graham Architects the summer of '60. I worked for the store planning department under Alan Gerrard but, the entrance and corridors there at Graham's exhibited architectural presentation work that was underway at that time. We all looked that over very carefully. I believe the first design for the Needle was a simple enclosed shaft with a "doughnut" at the top. Quite phallic but clean and simple. Later, I think Steinbrueck (one of my teachers about that time) said that he had proposed a hyperboloid structure to support a larger top and he said he was disappointed to learn that it offered little in the way of structural advantage and (thinking about it) I would guess that the hyperboloid (tilted) arrangement of the columns would tend to conflict with three elevators. The current structure mimics the profile of an hyperboloid and accommodates elevators and utilities more easily. I think Mr. Raban characterizes the design harshly but fairly.


    Posted Mon, Jul 9, 7:24 p.m. Inappropriate

    I went to the Space Needle on the 50th anniversary of the day my parents and I visited the Fair. I got a helpful woman to take my picture at exactly the same spot where my dad had photographed my mom and me 50 years ago to the day. Then I went down to the gift shop and bought a copy of Knute's book. It is exceptional. I can heartily recommend it to anyone!


    Posted Wed, Jul 11, 8:27 a.m. Inappropriate

    I happen to ctd. to think that the so-called "Space Needle" is really an over-extended and mal-proportioned Chinese Umbrella! That was my first impression, in 1994, and I still feel that way, no matter that I have been reading about it, chiefly from Mossback, for longer than 15 years. Now, if Brancusi had designed the "Space Needle" it might be a work of art and actually go out into space - instead it has that little head with a restaurant on top! It's artsy-craftsy, and in that sense it befits Seattle - that was something I did not know in 1994!


    Posted Wed, Jul 11, 12:26 p.m. Inappropriate

    Are you a proponent of the Shure Microphone School of monumental tower design, or the Marshmallow-on-a-Stick School of monumental tower design?


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